Constants and operators are highly significant parts of the C language, which have fixed constants and employ operators for computations.

We’ll go through operators and constants one by one in this article. You will be able to understand all of the idea operators and constants in C programming at the end of this tutorial.

Table of Contents

## Constants in C

What are constants in C? A constant in C language is a fixed value that does not change while the program is running. The following are the parts of the C constants:

- Integer Constant
- Real Constant
- Character Constant
- String Constant

### Integer Constant

A sequence of digits is referred to as an integer constant. There are three different types of integer constants.

- Decimal Integers Constant
- Octal Integer Constant
- Hexadecimal Integer Constant

#### Decimal Integer Constant

A decimal integer constant is made up of a collection of numbers ranging from 0 to 9, each followed by a – or + sign. + and – are optional here. Spaces, Commas and non-digit characters are not permitted between digits in decimal integer constant.

```
10
-302
+32
0
```

#### Octal Integer Constant

An octal integer constant is made up of any number of digits from 0 to 7, including a leading zero (0).

```
O23
O335
```

#### Hexadecimal Integer Constant

A hexadecimal integer is a set of numbers prefixed by the letters 0x or 0X. They might also include the letters a to f or A to F. The numerals 10 through 15 are represented by the letters A through F.

```
0X5
0X5A
0x5b
```

### Real Constant

Floating-point constants are another name for real constants. The real constants can be expressed in two ways:

- Fractional Form
- Exponential Form

#### Fractional Form

There must be at least one digit and a decimal point in a fractional form. It might be either a positive or a negative item. Positive is the default sign. In a real constant, no commas, non-digit characters, or blanks are permitted.

```
+457.05
-54.75
.21
```

#### Exponential Form

The exponential form of representation of real constants is employed when the value of the constant is either too small or too large. The real constant is expressed in two parts in exponential manner of representation. Mantissa refers to the component that appears before ‘e,’ whereas exponent refers to the part that appears after ‘e.’ The mantissa sign can be either positive or negative. Positive is the default sign. At least one digit must be a positive or negative integer in the exponent. Positive is the default sign. In exponential form, the range of real constants is 3.4e38 to 3.4e38.

```
2.3e-1
-0.2e+2
```

### Character Constant

A single character constant is made up of a single character contained by two single quotation marks.

```
'a'
'3'
```

### String Constant

A string constant is a collection of characters surrounded by double quotes. Letters, numerals, special characters, and blank space can all be used as characters.

```
"geek"
"329.30"
"32"
```

### Backslash Character Constant/Escape Sequences

The double quotation (“), the apostrophe (‘), the question mark (?) and the backslash () are examples of non-printing characters that can be described in terms of escape sequence.

# | Escape Sequences | Description |

1 | \a | Bell (audible alert) |

2 | \b | Backspace |

3 | \t | Horizontal tab |

4 | \n | New line (line feed) |

5 | \v | Vertical tab |

6 | \f | Form feed(new page) |

7 | \” | Quotation mark (double quote) |

8 | \\ | Backslash |

9 | \0 | Null |

**Constants and Operators in C Language**

## Operators in C

What is operator and its example? An operator is a symbol that instructs the computer to conduct mathematical or logical calculations. They are used to alter data and variables in programs. The following are the different types of operators in ‘C’:

- Arithmetic Operator
- Relational Operator
- Logical Operator
- Assignment Operator
- Increment and Decrement Operator
- Bitwise Operator
- Conditional Operator
- Comma Operator
- Sizeof Operator

### Arithmetic Operator

# | Operator | Meaning | Example |

1 | + | Addition | a + b |

2 | – | Subtraction | a – b |

3 | * | Multiplication | a * b |

4 | / | Division | a / b |

5 | % | Modulus | a % b |

### Relational Operator

# | Operator | Meaning | Example |

1 | == | is equal to | a == b |

2 | > | is greater than | a > b |

3 | >= | is greater than or equal to | a >= b |

4 | < | is less than | a < b |

5 | <= | is less than or equal to | a <= b |

### Logical Operator

# | Operator | Meaning |

1 | && | Logical AND |

2 | || | Logical OR |

3 | ! | Logical NOT |

### Assignment Operator

# | Operator | Example |

1 | = | z= x + y will assign value of x + y into z |

2 | += | x += 10 is equivalent to x = x + 10 |

3 | -= | x -= 10 is equivalent to x = x – 10 |

4 | *= | x *= 10 is equivalent to x = x * 10 |

5 | /= | x /= 10 is equivalent to x = x / 10 |

6 | %= | x %= 10 is equivalent to x = x % 10 |

7 | &= | x &= 10 is equivalent to x = x & 10 |

8 | |= | x |= 10 is equivalent to x = x | 10 |

9 | ^= | x ^= 10 is equivalent to x = x ^ 10 |

10 | <<= | x <<= 10 is equivalent to x = x << 10 |

11 | >>= | x >>= 10 is equivalent to x = x >> 10 |

### Increment and Decrement Operator

# | Operator | Meaning |

1 | ++ | Increment Operator |

2 | — | Decrement Operator |

### Bitwise and Bit Shift Operator

# | Operator | Meaning |

1 | ~ | Unary bitwise complement |

2 | << | Signed left shift |

3 | >> | Signed right shift |

4 | & | Bitwise AND |

5 | ^ | Bitwise exclusive OR |

6 | | | Bitwise inclusive OR |

### Conditional Operator

# | Operator | Meaning |

1 | ?: | Ternary Operator |

### Comma Operator

# | Operator | Meaning |

1 | , | Ternary Operator |

### Sizeof Operator

# | Operator | Meaning |

1 | sizeof | sizeof operator |

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