In this article we will discuss the states of matter (phase of matter) on the basis of physical properties (Solid, Liquid and Gas). Also we will discuss about plasma and Bose Einstein condensate states, Difference between solid, liquid and gas for class 3, class 4, class 9, class 11, Properties of matter, Classification of matter and examples.
Matter is anything that takes up space and causes us to feel. Matter is made up of tiny particles. Solid, Liquid and Gas are types of matter. For example wood, iron, water, milk, air, oxygen etc. These tiny particles cannot be seen with the naked eye. Some matter are in a complex state. The state of some matter keeps changing. It may take the shape of the vessel in which it is kept. Whereas some matter has no definite shape.
Table of Contents
Types of States of Matter
The states of matter can be divided into two classes:
- On the basis of physical properties (Solids, Liquids and Gases)
- On the basis of chemical properties (Elements, Compounds and Mixtures)
Read here the State of matter on the basis of chemical properties
Physical Properties of Matter : Solid, Liquid, Gas
How many states of matter are there? There are three states of matter on basis of physical properties: solid, liquid and gas. These three states can be interchanged.
Solid – Type of States of Matter
In the solid state of matter, the shape and volume do not change. In other words, a solid has a definite shape, clear boundaries, and a constant volume. It cannot be compressed. Because the force of attraction between the molecules of a solid is very strong. And the space between the molecules of the solid is negligible. For example chair, stone, gold, iron, glass, rubber etc.
The particles of solid matter are arranged in a particular order, this arrangement is called crystal lattice.
Liquid – Type of States of Matter
Like a solid, a liquid also has a definite volume but an indefinite shape. The vessel in which the liquid is kept, the liquid becomes like a vessel in shape. For example, water, oil, milk etc.
Liquids have the property of fluidity. That’s why a liquid is also called a fluid. The molecular force of attraction between the molecules of a liquid is less than that of a solid. The distance between its molecules is greater than the distance between the molecules of a solid. A liquid can easily change its shape, but it cannot change its volume. Due to this the volume of the liquid is fixed but the shape is uncertain.
The density of the liquid is less than the density of the solid.
Gas – Type of States of Matter
Gas is the third state of matter. In this state of matter both shape and volume are uncertain. Because the molecular attraction force between their molecules is very less and the distance between the molecules is greater than that of solids and liquids. For example LPG, CNG, Oxygen, Hydrogen, Air etc.
Besides solid, liquid and gas, two other states of matter have also been discovered. Plasma and Bose Einstein Condensate. Thus there are five states of matter.
Plasma State of Matter
The plasma state of matter is a type of ionized gas. Their particles are highly active and hyper-excited. Its electrons move freely. Plasma is an electrical conductor due to the free movement of positive and negative charges. This state of matter is quite different from solid, liquid and gas. But like a gas, plasma also does not have a definite shape or volume. When exposed to a magnetic field, the plasma forms a beam-like structure. This is a special property of plasma. For example, neon bulbs contain neon gas. When electrical energy is passed, it ionizes and begins to glow. In this way bright plasma is prepared inside it. The luminosity of the Sun and stars is due to plasma.
Plasma was first identified by Sir William Crooks in 1879. He named it “the shining substance”. Irving Langmuir referred to it as “plasma” in 1928.
Bose-Einstein condensation : States of Matter
Bose–Einstein condensate is the state of matter in which dilute boson gas is produced at temperatures near absolute zero. In this case, many bosons are in the lowest quantum state. This quantum effect can be observed on a large scale. These effects are called microscopic quantum phenomena.
The discovery of Bose–Einstein condensate state of matter was started by Indian physicist Satyendra Nath Bose in 1920. Which was given in full by Albert Einstein. Albert Einstein named this matter Bose Einstein Condensate (BEC). To obtain this state of matter, Eric A. Cornell, Wolfgang Ketterle and Carl E. Weimann were awarded the Nobel Prize in Physics in 2001.
Difference between Solid, Liquid and Gas | Solid Vs Liquid Vs Gas
The differences in the characteristics of the states of matter are tabulated below:
|Both the shape and volume of a solid matter are fixed.||The volume of a liquid is fixed but the shape is not fixed.||But both the volume and shape of a gas are not fixed.|
|The space between the molecules of a solid is negligible.||But the space between the molecules of a liquid is greater than that of a solid but less than that of a gas.||So much space are seen between molecules of gas.|
|The molecular attraction between the molecules of a solid is greatest.||But the molecular force of attraction between the molecules of a liquid is less than that of a solid.||The force of attraction is the least between the gas molecules.|
|Molecules of a solid have very little kinetic energy.||Molecules of liquid have more kinetic energy than solid but less than gas.||A molecule of a gas has the highest kinetic energy.|
|The solid has the highest density.||But the density of a liquid is less than that of a solid.||The gas has the lowest density as compared to solid and liquid.|
|No container or vessel is required to store the solid.||But a vessel is required to store the liquid.||But a completely closed container is required to store the gas.|
|The molecules of a solid are arranged sequentially.||Liquid molecules can slide over each other.||But the molecules of a gas have no order, they move randomly.|
|Sublimation method is used to convert solid into gas.||The boiling point method is used to convert a liquid into a gas.||The deposition method is used to convert a gas into a solid.|
|Solids cannot be compressed.||The compressibility of a liquid is greater than that of a solid but less than that of a gas.||The compressibility of the gas is highest.|
|Solid Example – table, iron, gold, plastic etc.||Liquid Example – oil, milk, water, tea, blood etc.||Gas Example – Hydrogen, LPG, CNG etc.|
Density, colour, hardness, melting points, boiling points, and electrical conductivity are main properties of any matter.
solids, liquids, gases, plasma, Bose-Einstein condensate, and fermionic condensate.
solids, liquids, gases, plasma and Bose-Einstein condensate.
There are four basic states of matter, they are solid, liquid, gas and plasma.
In our physics the state of matter can exist in different forms but there are four basic states of matter, they are solid, liquid, gas and plasma.
Fire is a plasma. It is neither a gas nor a solid. This is a kind of transient between the elements and the spent smoke before ignition.
The Sun was formed by the violent fusion of hydrogen and helium gas. These gases appear in the plasma state. It is a state of matter similar to a gas, but most of its particles are ionized.
- States of matter on the basis of chemical properties – Classification
- Examples of the Laws of Motion
- Derivation of law of gravitation
- Ohm’s law with diagram and formula