A computer is a piece of electronic equipment. Its primary role is to receive data, store it, and execute different operations (such as computations, comparisons, and so on) on that data based on the instructions provided, then deleting it from memory when no longer needed. The term “processing” refers to all of these actions taken together. In recent years, the scope of computer work has expanded dramatically.
As a result, a computer’s primary role is to process data and provide usable output (information). Raw data and instructions, as well as program, reports, charts, and other documents, are fed into the computer as input.
The components or materials used in computers that can be seen, touched, or felt are known as computer hardware materials or computer hardware. Keyboards, hard disks, and floppy disks are examples of hardware.
Table of Contents
Parts of computer and their functions
Any computer has the three main parts: Input Unit, CPU, Output Unit. We will understand the parts of computer and their functions in detail.
The input device is used to insert information programs, commands and commands into the computer. For example, a keyboard, a mouse, a joystick, and so on. Keyboard is the most popular investment unit.
Central Processing Unit-CPU
In general, we call it CPU. This is the computer’s main brain, and it is this unit that is in charge of all data processing. The CPU consists of a single chip with many pins. This chip is in the motherboard of the computer. It has two parts, Arithmetic and Logical Unit and Control Unit.
i) Arithmetic and Logical Unit
It is also known as ALU and performs operations such as addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division. It is a program that performs logical operations.
ii) Control Unit
This is the actual brain of the computer. It also controls the monitor, printer, keyboard, memory, modem, internal area and other parts of the computer. CPU Similar to a micro processor, it contains transistors and other electrical wires. A tiny silicon crystal is needed to make a microprocessor. CPU is installed on the microprocessor. It has many parts – RAM, serial port, display cards etc. It is installed in a box, which is called (Cabinet) or CPU box.
The output unit’s primary function is to show the processed data. For instance, a monitor or Visual Display Unit (VDU), a printer, and so on. The most common output unit is the monitor.
What is Computer Software?
Computer software can also be called computer process material. Our language is not understood by the computer. We must include instructions in order to use them. A program is a collection of distinct instructions. These applications are referred to as software. Actually, software is the part of the computer that works to bring this lifeless machine to life, but we can’t see it, touch it, or feel it while we’re working.
Programming Languages and Types
Because the computer does not comprehend human language, we must use a separate language to communicate with it. These unique languages are referred to as programming languages. There are mainly two kinds of programming languages.
Low Level Languages
Low Level Languages were widely used in the past. These languages are fully reliant on a computer, necessitating the creation of separate programs for each one. Writing programs in these languages is tough, and debugging flaws in the programs is considerably more complex. Machine and Assembly Language are two examples of programming languages.
High Level Language
Programming languages are high-level languages that are universally applicable to all types of computers. The syntax of these languages is independent of the computer’s machinery. High-level language programs may be executed on any machine that has a translation or compiler for that language.
COBOL (Common Business Oriented Language), FORTRAN (Formula Translator), BASIC (Beginners All Purpose Symbolic Instruction Code), C (C), SO++ (C++) are some of the popular high level programming languages.
What is the use of Mouse in Computer?
A mouse which is a tiny portable device, provides additional way of input in any PC, in addition to the keyboard. A lengthy wire connects it to the system unit (or cable). We can work from our PC without using the keyboard with its assistance. It actually works well with the keyboard.
The mouse is controlled by a hand on a flat surface known as a mouse pad, which contains a rubber ball at the bottom (i.e. the surface that touches the pad) that may rotate freely in all directions and two buttons on the top surface. We mostly utilize the left button, although the right button is also used in some applications.
However, a new type of mouse is now available that does not require the usage of a ball. It is an optical mouse with LED lighting.
The mouse pointer is a specific cursor or symbol that represents the mouse location on the screen, similar to the VDU up and down arrows. This pointer moves at the same rate as the mouse. When we move the mouse on the mouse pad with our hands, the mouse pointer travels in the same way. As a result, we may move the mouse cursor wherever on the monitor’s screen simply moving the mouse.
What is ROM in computer (Read-only memory)?
ROM refers to the computer’s temporary memory or internal memory. Read Only Memory is its full name. Its full name is Read Only Memory. In this, information can be read only. It is fixed. It is non-volatile, which means that the data is retained even when the computer is switched off. PROM, EPROM, and EEPROM are the three kinds.
1) PROM (Programmable Read Only Memory) Computer
This memory stores a program that allows information to be written to it just once. It is not possible to change information after it has been stored to this memory.
2) EPROM (Erasable Programmable Read Only Memory) Computer
It is possible to rewrite programs that have been stored in this memory. Light (Ultra Violet) is utilized to erase the software that has been written in it. We may rewrite the program in it once it has been completed.
3) EEPROM (Electrically Erasable Programmable Read Only Memory)
It is possible to rewrite program that have been stored in this memory. It is used to remove the program (Electrical Signals) that has been written in it and we may rewrite the program in it once it has been completed.
What are the Advantages of ROM in Computer?
- It holds the computer’s standing instructions, which were recorded at the time of its construction.
- The ROM can only be read. Its instructions are irreversible.